Oshnewia is bordered by Nagada to the east, by Piranshahr to the south, by Oromie to the north and by Iraqi Kurdistan Province to the west. The spoken language in the city is Kurdish, but the language which is used in schools and offices is Persian, as the official language of Iran in which almost everyone in the city is fluent.
In this territory many tribes or clans such as the Lullubi, Huraiyan, Assyrians, 'Orartoie and the Medes existed in the historical ages. In an inscription related to Koorush (Cyrus the Great) it is stated that the area of Oshnoonek or Oshnavieh paid a revenue to Koorush.
In Kolushir (to the south west of Oshnavieh), there is an engraving 170 cm. in height, bearing inscriptions in the two languages of Orartoie and Assyrian dating to the 8th century BC. (a decree from the Orartoie ruler of the times). In its historical past this city had been a battlefield between the Russians and the Ottomans and there has been evidence to plenty of upheavals which has caused many damages to lives and properties of the people.
After which followed famine and a devastating earthquake leaving heavy damage behind, such that the city was completely ruined, only to be reconstructed by the inhabitants.
During Iran-Iraq war, Ba'athist Iraq regime bombarded some parts of Oshnavieh in West Azerbaijan Province (on 2 August 1988) by Chemical bombs; and about 2700 persons were injured as a result of that.